Second, Hunt identifies a “strong” rights account that acknowledges a basic right to use drugs. Based on this definition, we believe that HAT falls into both camps HAT seeks to promote the right to access good health care, and the basic right as an individual asserting sovereignty over his or her body to inject heroin.

The CDC has also recommended treatments like exercise therapy and CBT to reduce pain and improve function in patients with chronic pain . These alternative treatments aim to directly dismantle the negative biofeedback created by drug- or pain-induced maladaptive changes within reward and stress circuitry. Although more research is needed, the authors suggest that a more integrated approach for managing chronic pain and addiction should include clinical mental health therapeutic techniques, discussed below. Chronic pain and addiction are widespread, pervasive, and significant public health burdens that demonstrate a need for more effective management strategies. The known effectiveness of opioids for managing acute pain combined with the limited therapeutic alternatives for chronic pain, have led to an overreliance on opioids for long-term pain management and the current opioid crisis in the United States . In this chapter, the authors have discussed conceptualizing chronic pain and SUD using a similar biopsychosocial framework and suggest that both can be more effectively managed by including clinical mental health therapeutic techniques as opposed to a purely biomedical approach. While psychotherapy has long been used in treating SUD, applying these techniques to chronic pain is fairly novel.

Learn About the Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction

If we accept that and recovery are bio-psycho-social-spiritual, which addiction support groups support this broad and complex approach? Fortunately, the two leading support groups describe their programs clearly and briefly, allowing for a useful comparison. As advocates of mental health and wellness, we take great pride in educating our readers on the various online therapy providers available.

What does the biopsychosocial model explain?

Biopsychosocial model helps primary care doctors to understand interactions among biological and psychosocial components of illnesses to improve the dyadic relationship between clinicians and their patients and multidisciplinary approaches in patient care.

The paper argues that addictions are a part of a biopsychosocial process and evidence is growing that excessive behaviours of all types do seem to have many commonalities. It is argued that an eclectic approach to the studying of addictive behaviour appears to be the most pragmatic way forward in the field. Such commonalities may have implications not only for treatment of such behaviours but also for how the general public perceive such behaviours. The new model was initially developed for helping people improve their mental health. However, it was later adopted to help treat those suffering from alcohol and substance use disorders. The final two dimensions, five and six, incorporate social and environmental influences on the individual. Here we evaluate whether the people, places, and things in the person’s life are supportive of sobriety or detrimental to the recovery process.

3 Biopsychosocial Plus Model

In the following passage, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration shares its insights into the role of drug cultures. But when you’re becoming addicted to a substance, that normal hardwiring of helpful brain processes can begin to work against you. Drugs or alcohol can hijack the pleasure/reward circuits in your brain and hook you into wanting more and more. Addiction can also send your emotional danger-sensing circuits into overdrive, making you feel anxious and stressed when you’re not using drugs or alcohol.

  • The addiction cycle is composed of three stages, each underlain by neuroplastic changes in the function of discrete brain circuits resulting from chronic drug exposure, with variability modulated by an individual’s genetics, life experiences, and their drug of choice.
  • Gilllett argues that the causal model is based on a faulty account of human autonomy and consciousness and is scientifically and conceptually questionable.
  • Pleasure circuits in adolescent brains also operate in overdrive, making drug and alcohol use even more rewarding and enticing.
  • Realizing a neurobiological or genetic susceptibility to addiction could empower life planning and the avoidance of high-risk scenarios.
  • Although there is no “addiction gene” to definitively identify a person as being at risk for addiction, it is evident through twin studies, adoption studies, family studies, and more recently, epigenetic studies that addiction has a genetic component.

These factors may indicate a certain level of group risk for problematic substance use, but cannot verify either the likelihood of substance use occurring within the group or which individuals within the group are more likely to be affected. These factors are not inherent in the composition of the social structure, are neither stable nor persistent, but are governed by the social values and norms of that social system or group . Psycho-social systems are concrete entities or groups whose members act in relation to each other, such as families, religious organizations, and political parties . Social processes in addiction are investigated by examining social categories such as networks, groups, organizations and subcultures that alone cannot be explained by neurobiology. Addiction consists of interacting biological and psychosocial mechanisms because the mechanism (e.g., the behaviour) contributing to addiction involves action within a social system.

Addiction Neuroethics in the Clinical Context

You will hear about the importance of spirituality to people, whether it is religious or non-religious. It is very important to be respectful around all spiritual dimensions as it is very important to people. Think of it as the therapeutic imagination of what spirituality means to the individual and show respect to each person, so that they can have the freedom to find, explore, revisit or discover their own beliefs. “As with heart disease or diabetes, there’s no one gene that makes you vulnerable,” Koob says. Uhl G, Drgon T, Johnson C, Liu Q-R. Addiction genetics and pleiotropic effects of common haplotypes that make polygenic contributions to vulnerability to substance dependence. An exploratory study of their structure and associations with other illness cognitions and perceptions of control. Haasen C, Verthein U, Degkwitz P, Berger J, Krausz M, Naber D. Heroin-assisted treatment for opioid dependence.


When we see use disorders/addictions in a binary fashion, we are choosing one lens or another, which does not give us a clear picture of the person. You can further explore poverty, race, gender, and other examples of intersectionality that may play a role in a person’s substance use/addiction as you are working with them, ensuring your work is cultural, spiritual, gender-sensitive and trauma-informed. When people with substance use disorders experience discrimination, they are likely to delay entering treatment and can have less positive treatment outcomes (Fortney et al. 2004;Link et al. 1997;Semple et al. 2005). Discrimination can also increase denial and step up the individual’s attempts to hide substance use (Mateu-Gelabert et al. 2005). The immorality that mainstream society attaches to substance use and abuse can unintentionally serve to strengthen individuals’ ties with the drug culture and decrease the likelihood that they will seek treatment. This chapter aims to explain that people who use drugs participate in a drug culture, and further, that they value this participation.

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There is now a growing movement that views a number of behaviours as potentially addictive including many that do not involve the ingestion of a drug . This paper argues that all addictions consist of a number of distinct common components .

The factors that increase an individual’s risk for addiction are numerous, yet they all find their place in the biopsychosocial model of addiction (Marlatt & Baer, 1988). Taken together, this model provides a holistic conceptualization of addiction that acknowledges the complexity of the disorder and provides guidance toward a solution, which must necessarily be multifaceted and holistic as well. The more we know about the biopsychosocial model, the more we can foster accurate empathy for those with addiction and work toward effective treatment and prevention efforts.

The value of the biopsychosocial model has not been in the discovery of new scientific laws, as the term “new paradigm” would suggest, but rather in guiding parsimonious application of medical knowledge to the needs of each patient. After overcoming her own struggles with addiction, she began working in the treatment field in 2012. She graduated from Palm Beach State College in 2016 with additional education in Salesforce University programs.

New holistic recovery program opens in Wilmington Friday – WWAY NewsChannel 3

New holistic recovery program opens in Wilmington Friday.

Posted: Wed, 20 Jul 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]